System of twisty puzzles

These pages shows all main types of twisty puzzles. Only 5 platonic solids (tetrahedrons, cubes, octahedrons, dodecahedrons and icosahedrons) are shown and only cuts that allow twisting without shape change are shown. I have classified the main types here by the number of cuts.

Deep cut twisty puzzles

First table contains so called deep cut puzzles. They have a single cut in the middle of the cube and thus all of them have only 2 layers.
All cuts can be either on face, corner or edge axes. There are theoretically 15 such puzzles existing (5 types of polyhedrons x 3 types of turning axes).
Only 3 out of 15 deep cut puzzles have not yet been built.

Single cut twisty puzzles

The second table contains puzzles that have one single cut, producing 2 - 3 layers.
Both deep-cut and shallow-cut puzzles are included in this table. Numbers in parenthesis show additional cuts which produce trivial twisting tips. These tips add aesthetic value to the puzzle, but do not add any complexity to solving the puzzle. Therefore these "trivial cuts" are omitted from the cut count.

Multi-cut twisty puzzles

Third table contains some puzzles with two, three or more cuts that have been commercially produced or hand built.

Single cut twisty puzzles:

Polyhedron Number of cuts ID Picture After 1 twist Real puzzle Comments
Turning axis Name
Deepness of cuts
in degrees
Number of layers Gelatinbrain ID
Puzzles with A SINGLE cut (2 or 3 layers)
Tetra
Face
(180)
0 cuts
2 layers
4F180
Mini Pyraminx
-
4F180_mini_pyraminx.jpg 4F180_mini_pyraminx_1turn.jpg mini_pyraminx.jpg Mini Pyraminx was first built by Adam Zamora, 2006.
Video link
Tetra
Face
150
1 cut
2 layers
4F150
unknown
5.1.1
4F150_unknown.jpg 4F150_unknown_1turn.jpg - -
Tetra
Face
120 (+240)
1 cut
2 layers
4F120
Pyraminx
5.1.2
4F120_pyraminx.jpg 4F120_pyraminx_1turn.jpg pyraminx.jpg The real Pyraminx has second cut at F240, producing trivial tips at each corner
Pyraminx was first marketed in 1981 by Uwe Meffert
Video link
Tetra
Face
90
1 cut
2 layers
4F90
Halpern-Meier Pyramid
5.1.3
4F90_tetrahedron.jpg 4F90_tetrahedron_1turn.jpg HM_tetrahedron.jpg This is an old Magic Tetrahedron aka Halpern-Meier Pyramid, designed by Halpern, Meier and others.
Pillowed factory-made version is known as Jing's Tetrahedron
Tetra
Edge
180
1 cut
2 layers
4E180
Pyramorphix
-
4E180_pyramorphix.jpg 4E180_pyramorphix_1turn.jpg mefferts_pyramorphix.jpg Patented in 1983 by Manfred Fritsche
Tetra
Edge
150
1 cut
3 layers
4E150
Mastermorphix
5.2.3
4E150_mastermorphix.jpg 4E150_mastermorphix_1turn.jpg mastermorphix.jpg 3x3x3 Tetrahedron aka Mastermorphix was first built by Tony Fisher in 1991
This version of Mastermorphix was hand-built by 'Apollo'/'kylerv3'
Pillowed factory-made version is known as Master Pyramorphinx
Tetra
Edge
120
1 cut
3 layers
4E120
unknown
5.2.1
4E120_unknown.jpg 4E120_unknown_1turn.jpg - -
Tetra
Edge
90
1 cut
3 layers
4E90
unknown
-
4E90_unknown.jpg 4E90_unknown_1turn.jpg - -
Cube
Face
180
1 cut
2 layers
6F180
Rubik's pocket cube
3.1.1
6F180_cube.jpg 6F180_cube_1turn.jpg 2x2x2_cube_Eastsheen.jpg -
Cube
Face
120
1 cut
3 layers
6F120
Rubik's cube
3.1.2
6F120_cube.jpg 6F120_cube_1turn.jpg 3x3x3_cube_Rubiks.jpg The most popular twisty puzzle.
Invented in 1974 by Hungarian sculptor and professor of architecture Erno Rubik
Cube
Corner
180
1 cut
2 layers
6C180
Skewb
3.2.1
6C180_skewb.jpg 6C180_skewb_1turn.jpg skewb.jpg -
Cube
Corner
150
1 cut
3 layers
6C150
Master Skewb
3.2.2
6C150_master_skewb.jpg 6C150_master_skewb_1turn.jpg master_skewb.jpg Master Skewb was first built by Katsuhiko Okamoto, 2006
Later, other versions have also been built by Andrew Cormier, 2008, built by Tony Fisher, 2009 and cublem, 2009.
Mass produced by LanLan in 2011
Video link of Andrew's Master Skewb
Cube
Corner
120
1 cut
3 layers
6C120
Dino Cube
3.2.4
6C120_dino_cube.jpg 6C120_dino_cube_1turn.jpg dino_cube.jpg Some of the original Dinosaur Cubes had different dinosaur pictures in each face.
Later, the Dino Cubes have frequently been built by modifying Rainbow Cubes
The Dino Cube on this picture has been built by SmaZ.
Cube
Corner
90
1 cut
3 layers
6C90
Compy Cube
-
6C90_compy_cube.jpg 6C90_compy_cube_1turn.jpg compy_cube_by_io.jpg This cube was designed by Jason Smith (io) in 2010
Video link
Cube
Edge
180
1 cut
2 layers
6E180
24 cube
3.3.7
6E180_little_chop.jpg 6E180_little_chop_1turn.jpg 24_cube.jpg Designed and built by Matt Shepit (the.drizzle), 2008
Video link
Cube
Edge
150
1 cut
3 layers
6E150
E.T.H.A.N.
3.3.6
6E150_ethan.jpg 6E150_ethan_1turn.jpg ethan.jpg First prototype built by Steryne,2010
Video link
Cube
Edge
135
1 cut
3 layers
6E135
deCETH (Deeper Cut Edge Turning Hexahedron)
3.3.5
6E135_unknown.jpg 6E135_unknown_1turn.jpg deceth.jpg Center piece disappears
First built by Grégoire Pfennig aka RubixFreakGreg January, 2012
Video link
Cube
Edge
127
1 cut
3 layers
6E127
unknown
3.3.4
6E127_unknown.jpg 6E127_unknown_1turn.jpg - Edge piece appears
Cube
Edge
120
1 cut
3 layers
6E120
QuadX
3.3.3
6E120_quadx.jpg 6E120_quadx_1turn.jpg QuadX.jpg Center piece disappears.
First built by Andrew Cormier, 2010.
Video link
Cube
Edge
110
1 cut
3 layers
6E110
unknown
3.3.2
6E110_unknown.jpg 6E110_unknown_1turn.jpg - Corner piece appears
Cube
Edge
90
1 cut
3 layers
6E90
Helicopter Cube
3.3.1
6E90_helicopter_cube.jpg 6E90_helicopter_cube_1turn.jpg helicopter_cube_by_adam.jpg Helicopter Cube was designed and built by Adam G. Cowan (Puzzlemaster42) and Katsuhiko Okamoto (Katsuhiko) in 2007
Video link
It is now factory-produced
Cube
Edge
60
1 cut
3 layers
6E60
unknown
-
6E60_unknown.jpg 6E60_unknown_1turn.jpg curvy_copter.jpg The Curvy Copter is closest existing puzzle to 6E60, it just has hidden center pieces and curvy lines.
The Curvy Copter was designed by TomZ in 2010
Video link
Octa
Face
180
1 cut
2 layers
8F180
Skewb Diamond
4.1.1
8F180_skewb_diamond.jpg 8F180_skewb_diamond_1turn.jpg skewb_diamond.jpg First built by Tony Fisher, 1991Later manufactured by Meffert's and other companies.
Octa
Face
150
1 cut
3 layers
8F150
Master Skewb Diamond
4.1.4
8F150_unknown.jpg 8F150_unknown_1turn.jpg master_skewb_diamond_8F135.jpg First built by kwsjack054, May 2011.
Octa
Face
120
1 cut
3 layers
8F120
Face-turning octahedron
4.1.2
8F120_face_turning_octa.jpg 8F120_face_turning_octa_1turn.jpg FT_octahedron.jpg Patented in 1983 by Karl Rohrbach
Factory-made since 2008
Video link
Octa
Face
90
1 cut
3 layers
8F90
Dino Octa
4.1.3
8F90_dino_octa.jpg 8F90_dino_octa_1turn.jpg dino_octa.jpg Designed by Katsuhiko Okamoto on 2006
Octa
Corner
180
1 cut
2 layers
8C180
Pyradiamond
-
8C180_pyradiamond.jpg 8C180_pyradiamond_1turn.jpg diamond.jpg -
Octa
Corner
150
1 cut
3 layers
8C150
Trajber's Octahedron
4.2.1
8C150_trajbers_octa.jpg 8C150_trajbers_octa_1turn.jpg trajbers_octahedron.jpg Frequently made from 3x3x3 cube.
Factory-made since 2010.
Video link
Octa
Corner
120 (+60)
1 cut
3 layers
8C120
Magic Octahedron
4.2.2
8C120_magic_octa_like.jpg 8C120_magic_octa_like_1turn.jpg magic_octahedron.jpg The real Magic Octahedron has another cut at C60, which produces trivial tips at each corner.
Video link
Octa
Corner
105
1 cut
3 layers
8C105
unknown
-
8C105_unknown.jpg 8C105_unknown_1turn.jpg - -
Octa
Edge
180
1 cut
2 layers
8E180
24-octahedron
4.3.3
8E180_24_octahedron.jpg 8E180_24_octahedron_1turn.jpg 24_octahedron_inc.jpg Designed by Matt Shepit (the.drizzle) in 2008, together with 24-cube. First built by incredible, 2010.
Video link
Octa
Edge
150
1 cut
3 layers
8E150
Solar Octahedron
4.3.4
8E150_unknown.jpg 8E150_unknown_1turn.jpg solar_octahedron.jpg First built by Muffet, November 2011.
Video link
Octa
Edge
120
1 cut
3 layers
8E120
unknown
4.3.2
8E120_unknown.jpg 8E120_unknown_1turn.jpg - -
Octa
Edge
114
1 cut
3 layers
8E114
unknown
-
8E114_unknown.jpg 8E114_unknown_1turn.jpg - -
Octa
Edge
108
1 cut
3 layers
8E108
unknown
-
8E108_unknown.jpg 8E108_unknown_1turn.jpg - -
Octa
Edge
102
1 cut
3 layers
8E102
unknown
-
8E102_unknown.jpg 8E102_unknown_1turn.jpg - -
Octa
Edge
90
1 cut
3 layers
8E90
Edge Turning Octahedron
4.3.1
8E90_eto.jpg 8E90_eto_1turn.jpg edge_turning_octahedron_eitan.jpg First built by Eitan Cher (pirsquared), 2010.
Video link
Octa
Edge
75
1 cut
3 layers
8E75
unknown
-
8E75_unknown.jpg 8E75_unknown_1turn.jpg - -
Octa
Edge
60
1 cut
3 layers
8E60
unknown
-
8E60_unknown.jpg 8E60_unknown_1turn.jpg - -
Octa
Edge
45
1 cut
3 layers
8E45
unknown
-
8E45_unknown.jpg 8E45_unknown_1turn.jpg - -
Dodeca
Face
180
1 cut
2 layers
12F180
Penultimate
1.1.7
12F180_penultimate.jpg 12F180_penultimate_1turn.jpg penultimate.jpg Designed and built by Jason Smith aka io, 2008
The making of the Penultimate
Video link
Dodeca
Face
160
1 cut
3 layers
12F160
Master Penultimate
1.1.6
12F160_master_penultimate.jpg 12F160_master_penultimate_1turn.jpg master_penultimate.jpg Designed and built by Scott Bedard, 2009
Video link
Dodeca
Face
140
1 cut
3 layers
12F140
Starminx I
1.1.5
12F140_starminxI.jpg 12F140_starminxI_1turn.jpg starminx_aleh.jpg Designed and built by Aleh, September 2009.
Video link
The second Starminx was built by Andrew Cormier in October 2009
Dodeca
Face
120
1 cut
3 layers
12F120
unknown
1.1.4
12F120_unknown.jpg 12F120_unknown_1turn.jpg - -
Dodeca
Face
100
1 cut
3 layers
12F100
Brilic / Pyraminx Crystal
1.1.3
12F100_pyraminx_crystal.jpg 12F100_pyraminx_crystal_1turn.jpg pyraminx_crystal.jpg Designed and built by Aleh, 2006.
Video link
History of the Brilic puzzle
Dodeca
Face
85
1 cut
3 layers
12F85
unknown
1.1.2
12F85_unknown.jpg 12F85_unknown_1turn.jpg - -
Dodeca
Face
70
1 cut
3 layers
12F70
Megaminx
1.1.1
12F70_megaminx.jpg 12F70_megaminx_1turn.jpg mefferts_megaminx.jpg Invented by several inventors independently in 1981
Video link
Dodeca
Corner
180
1 cut
2 layers
12C180
Chopasaurus
1.2.9
12C180_chopasaurus.jpg 12C180_chopasaurus_1turn.jpg chopasaurus.jpg First built by Andrew Cormier (drewseph), 2010.
Video link
Dodeca
Corner
165
1 cut
3 layers
12C165
unknown
1.2.8
12C165_unknown.jpg 12C165_unknown_1turn.jpg - -
Dodeca
Corner
150
1 cut
3 layers
12C150
unknown
1.2.7
12C150_unknown.jpg 12C150_unknown_1turn.jpg - -
Dodeca
Corner
120
1 cut
3 layers
12C120
Starminx III
1.2.6
12C120_starminxIII.jpg 12C120_starminxIII_1turn.jpg starminx_III_drewseph.jpg First built by Andrew Cormier (drewseph), 2010.
Video link
Dodeca
Corner
105
1 cut
3 layers
12C105
Novaminx
1.2.5
12C105_unknown.jpg 12C105_unknown_1turn.jpg novaminx.jpg First built by Luke, Jun 2012.
Video link
Dodeca
Corner
95
1 cut
3 layers
12C95
unknown
1.2.4
12C95_unknown.jpg 12C95_unknown_1turn.jpg - -
Dodeca
Corner
83
1 cut
3 layers
12C83
Pentagram
1.2.3
12C83_pentagram.jpg 12C83_pentagram_1turn.jpg pentagram.jpg First built by Eric Vergo (gingervergo), 2010.
Video link
Dodeca
Corner
75
1 cut
3 layers
12C75
Master Skewbminx
12C75_master_skewbminx.jpg 12C75_master_skewbminx_1turn.jpg master_skewbminx.jpg First built by arvinshu, Jun 2012.
Dodeca
Corner
66
1 cut
3 layers
12C66
unknown
1.2.2
12C66_unknown.jpg 12C66_unknown_1turn.jpg - -
Dodeca
Corner
45
1 cut
3 layers
12C45
Dino Dodecahedron
1.2.1
12C45_dino_dodeca.jpg 12C45_dino_dodeca_1turn.jpg dino_dodeca_by_incredible_1turn.jpg Designed by Luke Harry, built by Kuhrik in November 2009
Video link
On the picture is another build by 'incredible', 2010
Factory-made since 2011.
Dodeca
Edge
180
1 cut
2 layers
12E180
Big Chop
1.4.3
12E180_big_chop.jpg 12E180_big_chop_1turn.jpg - -
Dodeca
Edge
70
1 cut
3 layers
12E70
Starminx II
1.4.2
12E70_starminxII.jpg 12E70_starminxII_1turn.jpg starminxII_drewseph.jpg Designed and built by Andrew Cormier (drewseph) in December 2009
Video link
Dodeca
Edge
50
1 cut
3 layers
12E50
unknown
1.4.4
12E50_unknown.jpg 12E50_unknown_1turn.jpg - -
Dodeca
Edge
35
1 cut
3 layers
12E35
Dodecacopter
1.4.1
12E35_dodecacopter.jpg 12E35_dodecacopter_1turn.jpg dodecacopter_mini_muffet.jpg First built by Clay and Eva Creations, 2010. Video link
A differently cut dodecacopter (DodecacopterII) was built by Sharon Avidor and Matthew Ray (Muffet), 2011
Mini Dodecacopter (on the picture) was built by Muffet, 2011
Icosa
Face
180
1 cut
2 layers
20F180
unknown
2.1.5
20F180_unknown.jpg 20F180_unknown_1turn.jpg - -
Icosa
Face
120
1 cut
3 layers
20F120
Radiolarian 9 (Radio Crystal)
-
20F120_radiolarian9.jpg 20F120_radiolarian9_1turn.jpg radiolarian_9.jpg First by Jason Smith (io) in December 2012.
Video link
Icosa
Face
95
1 cut
3 layers
20F95
Radiolarian 8 (Radio Jam)
-
20F95_radiolarian8.jpg 20F95_radiolarian8_1turn.jpg radiolarian_8.jpg First by Jason Smith (io) in December 2012.
Video link
Icosa
Face
85
1 cut
3 layers
20F85
Radiolarian 7 (Radio Jewel)
2.1.4
20F85_radiolarian7.jpg 20F85_radiolarian7_1turn.jpg radiolarian_7.jpg First by Jason Smith (io) in November 2012.
Video link
Icosa
Face
80
1 cut
3 layers
20F80
Radiolarian 6 (Radio Web)
-
20F80_radiolarian6.jpg 20F80_radiolarian6_1turn.jpg radiolarian_6.jpg Designed and built by Jason Smith (io) in October 2012
Video link
Icosa
Face
77
1 cut
3 layers
20F77
Radiolarian 5 (Cat's Cradle)
-
20F77_radiolarian5.jpg 20F77_radiolarian5_1turn.jpg radiolarian_5.jpg Designed and built by Jason Smith (io) in October 2012
Video link
Icosa
Face
70
1 cut
3 layers
20F70
Eitan's Star (DeFTI)
2.1.3
20F70_defti.jpg 20F70_defti_1turn.jpg Eitan's_star.jpg First built by Eitan Cher (pirsquared), 2010.
Video link
Icosa
Face
55
1 cut
3 layers
20F55
Radiolarian III
2.1.2
20F55_radiolarianIII.jpg 20F55_radiolarianIII_1turn.jpg radiolarianIII.jpg Designed and built by Jason Smith (io) in January 2010
Icosa
Face
45
1 cut
3 layers
20F45
Radiolarian II
2.1.1
20F45_radiolarianII.jpg 20F45_radiolarianII_1turn.jpg radiolarianII.jpg Designed and built by Jason Smith (io) in January 2010
Video link
Bob Hearn (bhearn) has created another in January 2010
Icosa
Face
40
1 cut
3 layers
20F40
Radiolarian I
-
20F40_radiolarianI.jpg 20F40_radiolarianI_1turn.jpg radiolarianI.jpg Designed and built by Jason Smith (io) in January 2009
Video link
Icosa
Corner
180
1 cut
2 layers
20C180
Icosamate
2.2.6
20C180_unknown.jpg 20C180_unknown_1turn.jpg icosamate_by_io.jpg Designed and built by Jason Smith (io), 2010
Video link
Icosa
Corner
165
1 cut
3 layers
20C165
unknown
2.2.5
20C165_unknown.jpg 20C165_unknown_1turn.jpg - -
Icosa
Corner
153
1 cut
3 layers
20C153
Ve-minx
2.2.4
20C153_unknown.jpg 20C153_unknown_1turn.jpg ve-minx.jpg First built by Eric Vergo (gingervergo), 2011.
See also Twisty Puzzle discussion.
Icosa
Corner
140
1 cut
3 layers
20C140
Astrominx
2.2.3
20C140_astrominx.jpg 20C140_astrominx_1turn.jpg astrominx.jpg First built by Eric Vergo (gingervergo), 2010.
Video link
Icosa
Corner
100
1 cut
3 layers
20C100
unknown
-
20C100_unknown.jpg 20C100_unknown_1turn.jpg 20C100_twelve_color_dogic.jpg Twelve-color Dogic is shown on this picture. If you mix it without twisting tips, you will essentially have 20C100. The real 20C100 has never been made.
Icosa
Corner
90
1 cut
3 layers
20C90
Icosaminx
(Icosahedron Megaminx)
2.2.2
20C90_icosaminx.jpg 20C90_icosaminx_1turn.jpg icosaminx.jpg Designed and built by 'p|astic', 2008
Another speciman was built by Tony Fisher, later in 2008
Video link
Icosa
Corner
66 (+33)
1 cut
3 layers
20C66
Tutt's Icosaminx
2.2.1
20C66_unknown.jpg 20C66_unknown_1turn.jpg tutt_icosaminx.jpg The real Tutt's Icosaminx has trivial corner cut at C33 as seen on third picture
The Icosaminx was designed by Lee Tutt (Lee T.) in 2007
Video link
Icosa
Edge
180
1 cut
2 layers
20E180
unknown
2.3.1
20E180_unknown.jpg 20E180_unknown_1turn.jpg - -
Icosa
Edge
50
1 cut
3 layers
20E50
unknown
2.3.2
20E50_unknown.jpg 20E50_unknown_1turn.jpg - -
Icosa
Edge
45
1 cut
3 layers
20E45
Icosacopter
-
20E45_icosacopter.jpg 20E45_icosacopter_1turn.jpg icosacopter.jpg First built by Sharon Avidor and Matthew Ray (Muffet), 2010.
Video link
Icosa
Edge
23
1 cut
3 layers
20E23
unknown
-
20E23_unknown.jpg 20E23_unknown_1turn.jpg - -
Last updated 1st of January 2013.